Sunday, May 19, 2013

Psikonalisis touted as the first in a stream of psychological strength. This flow was first developed in the 1890s by Simund Freud, a neurologist who managed to find ways efektifbagi treatment of patients who experience symptoms of neurotic disorders and hysteria through experimental treatment technique calledabreaction, a combination of hypnotic techniques with catharsis, which he learned from the senior and best friend, Dr.. Josef Breuer.Together with Breuer, Freud's patients deal with disorders hysteria that became material for his writing: " Studies in Hysteria ". Cooperation with Jean Martin Charcot, the French neurologist famous, he's a lot of digging tentanggejala-psychosomatic symptoms than patients experience sexual harassment.
Freud succeeded in developing a theory of personality structure that divides the mind into three parts, namely: consciousness (the conscious),preconsciousness ( conscious threshold ) and unconsciousness (the subconscious). The third aspect of consciousness, unconsciousness is the most dominant and the most important in determining human behavior (analogous to the iceberg). In the unsconscious stored childhood memories, great psychic energy and instinct. Preconsciousness act as a bridge between the conscious and the unconscious , contains memories or ideas that can be accessed anytime. Consciousness is just a small part of the mind, but the only part that has direct contact with reality.Freud developed the concept of the structure of the mind to develop "mind apparatus " , which is known to Freud's personality structure and become konstruknya most importantly, the id , ego and super ego . Id is the most basic structure of personality, entirely unconscious and work according to the pleasure principle, the goal is immediate gratification. egodevelops from the id , which controls the personality structure and take decisions on human behavior. superego , the ego develops when humans understand the value of good and bad morals. Superego reflect social values ​​and individual awareness the moral tuntuta. In case of violation of values, superego punishes the ego with a sense of false cause. egoalways face the tension between the demands of the id and superego . If the claim is not resolved properly, then the ego is threatened and comes anxiety ( anxiety ). In order to save themselves from threats, ego conduct defensive reaction / self defense. This is known as a defense mecahnismwhich can be of various kinds, such as: identification, projection, fixation, agesi regression, repression.
Thought Psychoanalysis of Freud increasingly growing, Alfred Adler(1870-1937), a follower of Freud who managed to develop his own theory, called Individual Psychology. Adler is the main concept of organ inferiority. Departing from his theory of the inferiority because of trying to overcome the physical deficiencies of man, he expanded his theory by stating that inferior feeling is universal. Every human being must have a feeling inferior because of its shortcomings and attempt to compensate for these feelings. This compensation can be in the form of adjusting or forming a defense that allows it to overcome these weaknesses. Furthermore, Adler also talks about striving for superiority , the impetus to overcomeinferiority by achieving excellence. This impulse innate nature and a strong driving force for the individual throughout his life. The existence ofstriving for superiority causes humans always evolve toward perfection.This theory makes Adler has a more optimistic and positive outlook on people and more future-oriented than Freud is more oriented to the past.
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), a disciple of Freud who later managed to develop his own theory called Analytical Psychology. Jung ketidakadaran with emphasis on key concepts, collective unconscious . The concept of transpersonal nature, exist in all human beings. This can be evidenced by the structure of the human brain has not changed. Collective unconsciousconsists of memory traces inherited from previous generations, the coverage is up in pre-human. For example, parental love, fear of the wild beasts, and others. Collective unconscious is the basis of human personality because it contains wisdom espoused values ​​and human.Derived ideas or primordial images called archetypes, which are formed from repeated experience in a long time. There are several archetypes of human fundamental, namely persona, anima, shadow , self . Archetypethat is the content of collective unconsciousness . (Hana Panggabean, 2007, )
Until now in the United States were approximately 35 institutions that have been accredited training psychoanalysis by the American Psychoanalytic Associationdan there are more than 3,000 graduates who runs the practice of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic thinking is not only growing in America in almost all parts of Europe and other parts of the world.
Some of the resulting theory of psychoanalysis , among others: (1) the theory of conflict, (2) ego psychology, (3) the theory of object relations, (4) structural theory, and so on

Despite the controversy that accompanies it, psychoanalysis is one stream that has managed to uncover the psychological side of human life that can not be observed by the senses. Psychoanalysis has led the vanguard, the Sigmund Freud as one of psychology's most popular figures in America in the 20th century.
Behaviorisme is one who believes that the school psychology to examine the behavior of individuals should be made ​​to each individual activity that can be observed, not on hypothetical events that occur within individu.Oleh Therefore, adherents reject behaviorism flow kerasadanya aspects of consciousness or mentality in individual.This view has persisted long sejakjaman actually Ancient Greek, when psychology is considered part of the study of philosophy. But the birth of formal psychological behaviorism as the flow begins by JB Watson in 1913 who considered psychology as part of an experimental kealaman knowledge and objective, therefore psychology should use empirical methods, such as observation, conditioning, testing, and verbal reports.
The main theory of the concept Watson stimulus and response (SR) in psychology. Stimulus object is anything that comes from the environment.While the response is any activity in response to the stimulus, ranging from simple to advanced level. Watson does not believe in hereditary elements (offspring) as a determinant of human behavior and the behavior is the result of learning so that the environment is very important element.Watson thought to be the basis for the next embraced behaviorism.
The theories developed by many groups of behaviorism mainly produced through a variety of experiments on animals. Here are some important theories of behaviorism generated by the group:
1. Connectionism ( S-R Bond)menurut Thorndike.
From experiments on cats produce Thorndike-hukumbelajar law, including:
  • Law of Effect; responsmenghasilkan means that if a satisfactory effect, the relationship Stimulus - response will be stronger. In contrast, the effects achieved unsatisfactory response, then the weaker pulahubunganyang between Stimulus-Response.
  • Law of Readiness; meaning that readiness refers to the assumption that the satisfaction derived from the organism pemdayagunaan introductory unit (conduction units), where these units pose a tendency that encourages the organism to do or not do something.
  • Law of Exercise; meaning that the relationship between the stimulus response will be growing close, if often trained and akansemakin reduced if rare or not trained.
2. Classical Conditioningmenurut Ivan Pavlov
From Pavlov conducted experiments to produce a dog-hukumbelajar law, including:
  • Law of Respondent Conditioning habituation demanded the law. If the two kinds of stimuli presented simultaneously (one of which serves as a reinforcer), the reflex and other stimulus will increase.
  • Law of Respondent Extinctionyakni annihilation law required. If the reflexes that have been strengthened through conditioning Respondent was brought back without presenting a reinforcer, then the power will decrease.
3. OperantConditioningmenurut B.F. Skinner
Of BF Skinner conducted experiments on rats and pigeons produce further towards law-hukumbelajar, including:
  • Law of operant behavior conditining ie if accompanied by the onset of the stimulus amplifier, the power of such behavior will increase.
  • Law of operant extinction that if the onset of operant behavior has been reinforced through the process of reinforcing stimulus conditioningitu not followed, then the strength of the behavior will decrease even destroyed.
Reber (Muhibin Shah, 2003) mentions that the operant is a behavior that brings the same effect on the environment. Responsdalam operant conditioning occur without preceded by a stimulus, but by the effects of reinforcer. Reinforcer itself is essentially adalahstimulus which increases the likelihood of a number of responstertentu, but not deliberately organized as other stimulus pair as in classical conditioning.
4. Social Learningmenurut Albert Bandura

Social learning theory also called observational learning theory is a theory of learning that is relatively new compared to other learning theories.Unlike the adherents of other Behaviorism, Banduramemandang individual behavior is not merely an automatic reflex of the stimulus (SR Bond), but also due to the reactions that occur as a result of the interaction between the environment and the individual cognitive schema. Learn the basic principles of this theory, that the individuals studied, especially in the social and moral learning occurs through imitation (imitation) and presenting examples of behavior (modeling). This theory is also still looking at the importance of conditioning. Through the provision of reward and punishment, an individual will think and decide manayang social behavior needs to be done.
Psikologi humanistic one stream in psychology that emerged in the 1950s, with the roots of existentialism thought that developed in the Middle Ages. At the end of the 1950s, psychologists, such as: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Clark Moustakas establish a professional association that seeks to focus specifically on a variety of human uniqueness, such as about: self (self), self-actualization, health, hope, love, creativity, nature, individuality, and the like.
The presence of humanistic psychology emerged as a reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism flow and is seen as a "third force" in psychology stream. Psychoanalysis is considered as the first force in psychology who came from humble beginnings psikoanalisisala about Freud that seeks to understand the depth of the human psyche, combined with awareness of the mind in order to produce a healthy personality.Group psychoanalyst believes that human behavior is controlled and regulated by the power of the unconscious self.
The second force is behaviorism psychology pioneered by Ivan Pavlov with his thoughts on the results of the conditioned reflex. Behavioristic circles believe that all behavior is controlled by external factors of the environment.
In developing his theory, humanistic psychology are very concerned about the human dimensions associated with the human environment with focus on the freedom of individuals to express their opinions and make choices, values, personal responsibility, autonomy, purpose and meaning. In this case, James Bugental (1964) argued about 5 (five) major tenets of humanistic psychology, namely: (1) the existence of human beings can not be reduced to components, (2) human being is unique in dealing with other human beings; (3) humans have an awareness of themselves in relation to the conduct of others, (4) humans have choices and be responsible for the choice-their choice, and (5) human beings have consciousness and deliberately to find meaning, value and creativity.
There are some psychologists who have contributed to the development of his thinking humanistic psychology . Snyggs contribution and Combs (1949) from the study group phenomenology of perception. He believes that a person will behave in line with what dipersepsinya. According to him, that the reality is not attached to the incident itself, but from the perception of an event.
Thinking of Abraham Maslow (1950), which focuses on the psychological needs of the potential of human beings. Results have helped to understand his thinking about one's motivation and self-actualization, which is one of the goals in the humanistic education. Morris (1954) believes that humans can think about berfikirnya process itself and then questioned and corrected. He mentioned also that every human being can think about feelings persaannya and also have self-consciousness. With self-awareness, humans can strive to be better. Carl Rogers made a large contribution in ushering in humanistic psychology to be diaplikasian in education. She developed an educational philosophy that emphasizes the importance of establishing personal meaning during the learning process through efforts to create an emotional climate conducive in order to establish the personal meaning. He focuses on the emotional relationship between teachers and students
With regard to epistemiloginya, humanistic theories developed based on qualitative research methods that focus on the human experience of real life (Aanstoos, Serlin & Greening, 2000). Assume that the humanistic study of mental effort and human behavior scientifically through quantitative methods as something wrong. Surely this is a criticism of cognitivism that applying the scientific method of quantitative approaches in an effort to learn about psychology.
In contrast, humanistic psychology also received criticism that his theories may not be able to falsify and lack of predictive power that is considered not as a science (Popper, 1969, Chalmers, 1999).
The brainchild of humanistic psychology is widely exploited for the benefit of counseling and therapy, one of which is very popular is of Carl Rogers and client-centered therapy, which focuses on the capacity of the client to be able to drive themselves and understand their development, and emphasized the importance of being sincere, respectful and without prejudice to help individuals overcome the problems of life. Rogers believes that the client actually has the answers to the problems it faces and the counselor's task is only to guide clients find the right answer.According to Rogers, the techniques of assessment and opinion of the counselor is not important in making treatment or the provision of assistance to clients.
In addition to contributing to the counseling and therapy, humanistic psychology is also contributing to alternative education, known as thehumanistic education (humanistic education). Humanistic education is to develop the whole person through a real learning. Expansion aspects of emotional, social, mental, and skill in careerist become the focus in this model of humanistic education.

  • Abin Mamun Shamsuddin. Of 2003. Educational Psychology.Bandung: PT Rosda Youth Work.