Psikonalisis touted as the first in a stream of psychological strength. This flow was first developed in the 1890s by Simund Freud, a neurologist who managed to find ways efektifbagi treatment of patients who experience symptoms of neurotic disorders and hysteria through experimental treatment technique calledabreaction, a combination of hypnotic techniques with catharsis, which he learned from the senior and best friend, Dr.. Josef Breuer.Together with Breuer, Freud's patients deal with disorders hysteria that became material for his writing: " Studies in Hysteria ". Cooperation with Jean Martin Charcot, the French neurologist famous, he's a lot of digging tentanggejala-psychosomatic symptoms than patients experience sexual harassment.
Freud succeeded in developing a theory of personality structure that divides the mind into three parts, namely: consciousness (the conscious),preconsciousness ( conscious threshold ) and unconsciousness (the subconscious). The third aspect of consciousness, unconsciousness is the most dominant and the most important in determining human behavior (analogous to the iceberg). In the unsconscious stored childhood memories, great psychic energy and instinct. Preconsciousness act as a bridge between the conscious and the unconscious , contains memories or ideas that can be accessed anytime. Consciousness is just a small part of the mind, but the only part that has direct contact with reality.Freud developed the concept of the structure of the mind to develop "mind apparatus " , which is known to Freud's personality structure and become konstruknya most importantly, the id , ego and super ego . Id is the most basic structure of personality, entirely unconscious and work according to the pleasure principle, the goal is immediate gratification. egodevelops from the id , which controls the personality structure and take decisions on human behavior. superego , the ego develops when humans understand the value of good and bad morals. Superego reflect social values and individual awareness the moral tuntuta. In case of violation of values, superego punishes the ego with a sense of false cause. egoalways face the tension between the demands of the id and superego . If the claim is not resolved properly, then the ego is threatened and comes anxiety ( anxiety ). In order to save themselves from threats, ego conduct defensive reaction / self defense. This is known as a defense mecahnismwhich can be of various kinds, such as: identification, projection, fixation, agesi regression, repression.
Thought Psychoanalysis of Freud increasingly growing, Alfred Adler(1870-1937), a follower of Freud who managed to develop his own theory, called Individual Psychology. Adler is the main concept of organ inferiority. Departing from his theory of the inferiority because of trying to overcome the physical deficiencies of man, he expanded his theory by stating that inferior feeling is universal. Every human being must have a feeling inferior because of its shortcomings and attempt to compensate for these feelings. This compensation can be in the form of adjusting or forming a defense that allows it to overcome these weaknesses. Furthermore, Adler also talks about striving for superiority , the impetus to overcomeinferiority by achieving excellence. This impulse innate nature and a strong driving force for the individual throughout his life. The existence ofstriving for superiority causes humans always evolve toward perfection.This theory makes Adler has a more optimistic and positive outlook on people and more future-oriented than Freud is more oriented to the past.
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), a disciple of Freud who later managed to develop his own theory called Analytical Psychology. Jung ketidakadaran with emphasis on key concepts, collective unconscious . The concept of transpersonal nature, exist in all human beings. This can be evidenced by the structure of the human brain has not changed. Collective unconsciousconsists of memory traces inherited from previous generations, the coverage is up in pre-human. For example, parental love, fear of the wild beasts, and others. Collective unconscious is the basis of human personality because it contains wisdom espoused values and human.Derived ideas or primordial images called archetypes, which are formed from repeated experience in a long time. There are several archetypes of human fundamental, namely persona, anima, shadow , self . Archetypethat is the content of collective unconsciousness . (Hana Panggabean, 2007, http://rumahbelajarpsikologi.com )
Until now in the United States were approximately 35 institutions that have been accredited training psychoanalysis by the American Psychoanalytic Associationdan there are more than 3,000 graduates who runs the practice of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic thinking is not only growing in America in almost all parts of Europe and other parts of the world.
Some of the resulting theory of psychoanalysis , among others: (1) the theory of conflict, (2) ego psychology, (3) the theory of object relations, (4) structural theory, and so on
Despite the controversy that accompanies it, psychoanalysis is one stream that has managed to uncover the psychological side of human life that can not be observed by the senses. Psychoanalysis has led the vanguard, the Sigmund Freud as one of psychology's most popular figures in America in the 20th century.